salt content of the red sea

Red Sea

Previous (Red Jacket)
Next (Red Skelton)

Map of the Red Sea and surrounding area.

The Red Sea, one of the most saline bodies of water in the world, is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. The connection to the ocean is in the south through the Bab el Mandeb sound and the Gulf of Aden . In the north are the Sinai Peninsula , the Gulf of Aqaba , and the Gulf of Suez (leading to the Suez Canal ). The Sea has played a crucial navigational role since ancient times.

Occupying a part of the Great Rift Valley , the Red Sea has a surface area of about 174,000 square miles (450,000 km²): Being roughly 1,200 miles (1,900 km) long and, at its widest point, over 190 miles (300 km) wide. It has a maximum depth of 8,200 feet (2,500 m) in the central median trench and an average depth of 1,640 feet (500 m), but there are also extensive shallow shelves, noted for their marine life and corals . This, the world’s most northern tropical sea, is the habitat of over 1,000 invertebrate species and 200 soft and hard corals.

Contents

  • 1 Name
  • 2 History
  • 3 Oceanography
  • 4 Geology
  • 5 Living resources
  • 6 Mineral resources
  • 7 Desalination plants
  • 8 Facts and figures at a glance
  • 9 Some of the research cruises in the Red Sea
  • 10 Tourism
  • 11 Bordering countries
  • 12 Towns and cities
  • 13 Notes
  • 14 References
  • 15 Credits

The world’s largest independent conservation organization, the World Wide Fund for Nature, has identified the Red Sea as a “Global 200” ecoregion. As such, it is considered a priority for conservation.

Name

Red Sea is a direct translation of the Greek Erythra Thalassa (Ερυθρά Θάλασσα), Latin Mare Rubrum, Arabic Al-Baḥr Al-Aḥmar (البحر الأحمر), and Tigrinya Qeyḥ bāḥrī (ቀይሕ ባሕሪ).

The name of the sea may signify the seasonal blooms of the red-colored cyanobacteria Trichodesmium erythraeum near the water’s surface. Some suggest that it refers to the mineral -rich red mountains nearby which are called Harei Edom (הרי אדום). Edom, meaning “ruddy complexion,” is also an alternative Hebrew name for the red-faced biblical character Esau (brother of Jacob ), and the nation descended from him, the Edomites , which in turn provides yet another possible origin for Red Sea.

Another hypothesis is that the name comes from the Himyarite, a local group whose own name means red.

Yet another theory favored by some modern scholars is that the name red is referring to the direction south, the same way the Black Sea ‘s name may refer to north. The basis of this theory is that some Asiatic languages used color words to refer to the cardinal directions. Herodotus on one occasion uses “Red Sea” and “Southern Sea” interchangeably.

A final theory suggests that it was named so because it borders the Egyptian Desert which the ancient Egyptians called the Dashret or “red land”; therefore, it would have been the sea of the red land.

The association of the Red Sea with the Biblical account of the Exodus , in particular in the Passage of the Red Sea, goes back to the Septuagint translation of the book of Exodus from Hebrew into Koine, in which Hebrew Yam suph (ים סוף), meaning Reed Sea, is translated as Erythra Thalassa (Red Sea). Yam Suph is also the name for the Red Sea in modern Hebrew.

Eilat and the Red Sea with Jordan on the other side

History

Mahmya Beach, Hurghada, Egypt.

View of the Red Sea and Tiran Island from Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt.

Beach with promenade in Dahab, Egypt.

The earliest known exploration expeditions of the Red Sea were conducted by Ancient Egyptians seeking to establish commercial routes to Punt. One such expedition took place around 2500 B.C.E. and another around 1500 B.C.E. Both involved long voyages down the Red Sea. [1]

The Biblical book of Exodus tells the story of the Israelites’ miraculous crossing of a body of water, which the Hebrew text calls Yam Suph, traditionally identified as the Red Sea. The account is part of the Israelites’ escape from slavery in Egypt, and is told in Exodus 13:17—15:21.

In the sixth century B.C.E., Darius I of Persia sent reconnaissance missions to the Red Sea, improving and extending navigation by locating many hazardous rocks and currents. A canal was built between the Nile and the northern end of the Red Sea at Suez. In the late fourth century B.C.E., Alexander the Great sent Greek naval expeditions down the Red Sea to the Indian Ocean . Greek navigators continued to explore and compile data on the Red Sea.

Agatharchides collected information about the sea in the second century B.C.E. The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, written sometime around the first century C.E., contain a detailed description of the Red Sea’s ports and sea routes. [1] The Periplus also describes how Hippalus first discovered the direct route from the Red Sea to India .

The Red Sea was favored for Roman trade with India beginning with the reign of Augustus , when the Roman Empire gained control over the Mediterranean , Egypt , and the northern Red Sea. The route had been used by previous states but grew in the volume of traffic under the Romans. From Indian ports, goods from China were introduced to the Roman world. Contact between Rome and China depended on the Red Sea, but the route was broken by the Aksumite Empire around the third century C.E. [2]

During medieval times the Red Sea was an important part of the Spice trade route.

In 1798, France charged Napoleon Bonaparte with invading Egypt and capturing the Red Sea. Although he failed in his mission, the engineer J.B. Lepere, who took part in it, revitalized the plan for a canal which had been envisaged during the reign of the Pharaohs. Several canals were built in ancient times, but none lasted long.

The Suez Canal was opened in November 1869. At the time, the British, French, and Italians shared the trading posts. The posts were gradually dismantled following the First World War . After the Second World War , the Americans and Soviets exerted their influence while the volume of oil tanker traffic intensified. However, the Six Day War culminated in the closure of the Suez Canal from 1967 to 1975. Today, in spite of patrols by the major maritime fleets in the waters of the Red Sea, the Suez Canal has never recovered its supremacy over the Cape route, which is believed to be less vulnerable.

Oceanography

The Red Sea lies between arid land, desert , and semi-desert. The main reasons for the better development of reef systems along the Red Sea is because of its greater depths and an efficient water circulation pattern. The Red Sea water mass exchanges its water with the Arabian Sea and Indian Ocean via the Gulf of Aden . These physical factors reduce the effect of high salinity caused by evaporation and cold water in the north and relatively hot water in the south.

Climate: The climate of the Red Sea is the result of two distinct monsoon seasons; a northeasterly monsoon and a southwesterly monsoon. Monsoon winds occur because of the differential heating between the land surface and sea. Very high surface temperatures coupled with high salinities makes this one of the hottest and saltiest bodies of seawater in the world. The average surface water temperature of the Red Sea during the summer is about 26  °C (79  °F ) in the north and 30 °C (86 °F) in the south, with only about 2 °C (3.6 °F) variation during the winter months. The overall average water temperature is 22 °C (72 °F). The rainfall over the Red Sea and its coasts is extremely low, averaging 0.06 m (2.36 in) per year; the rain is mostly in the form of showers of short spells often associated with thunderstorms and occasionally with dust storms. The scarcity of rainfall and no major source of fresh water to the Red Sea result in the excess evaporation as high as 205 cm (81 in) per year and high salinity with minimal seasonal variation.

Bathymetric map of the Red Sea

Salinity: The Red Sea is one of the most saline water bodies in the world, due to the effects of the water circulation pattern, resulting from evaporation and wind stress. Salinity ranges between 3.6 and 3.8 percent.

Tidal range: In general, tide ranges between 0.6 m (2.0 ft) in the north, near the mouth of the Gulf of Suez and 0.9 m (3.0 ft) in the south near the Gulf of Aden but it fluctuates between 0.20 m (0.66 ft) and 0.30 m (0.98 ft) away from the nodal point. The central Red Sea (Jeddah area) is therefore almost tideless, and as such the annual water level changes are more significant. Because of the small tidal range the water during high tide inundates the coastal sabkhas as a thin sheet of water up to a few hundred meters rather than inundating the sabkhas through a network of channels. However, south of Jeddah in the Shoiaba area, the water from the lagoon may cover the adjoining sabkhas as far as 3 km (2 mi) whereas, north of Jeddah in the Al-kharrar area the sabkhas are covered by a thin sheet of water as far as 2 km (1.2 mi). The prevailing north and northeastern winds influence the movement of water in the coastal inlets to the adjacent sabkhas, especially during storms. Winter mean sea level is 0.5 m (1.6 ft) higher than in summer. Tidal velocities passing through constrictions caused by reefs, sand bars and low islands commonly exceed 1-2 meters per second (3–6.5 ft/s).

Current: In the Red Sea, detailed current data is lacking, partially because they are weak and variable both spatially and temporally. Temporal and spatial currents variation is as low as 0.5 m (1.6 ft) and are governed mostly by wind. In summer, NW winds drive surface water south for about four months at a velocity of 15-20 cm per second (6–8 in/sec), whereas in winter the flow is reversed, resulting in the inflow of water from the Gulf of Aden into the Red Sea. The net value of the latter predominates, resulting in an overall drift to the northern end of the Red Sea. Generally, the velocity of the tidal current is between 50-60 cm per second (20–23.6 in/sec) with a maximum of 1 m (3 ft) per sec. at the mouth of the al-Kharrar Lagoon. However, the range of north-northeast current along the Saudi coast is 8-29 cm per second (3–11.4 in/sec).

Wind Regime: With the exception of the northern part of the Red Sea, which is dominated by persistent north-west winds, with speeds ranging between 7 km/h (4 mph) and 12 km/h (7 mph), the rest of the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden are subjected to the influence of regular and seasonally reversible winds. The wind regime is characterized by both seasonal and regional variations in speed and direction with average speed generally increasing northward.

Wind is the driving force in the Red Sea for transporting the material either as suspension or as bedload. Wind induced currents play an important role in the Red Sea in initiating the process of resuspension of bottom sediments and transfer of materials from sites of dumping to sites of burial in quiescent environment of deposition. Wind generated current measurement is therefore important in order to determine the sediment dispersal pattern and its role in the erosion and accretion of the coastal rock exposure and the submerged coral beds.

Geology

Dust storm over the Red Sea

The Red Sea formed when Arabia split from Africa due to plate tectonics . This split started in the Eocene and accelerated during the Oligocene . The sea is still widening and it is considered that the sea will become an ocean in time (as proposed in the model of John Tuzo Wilson).

Sometime during the Tertiary period, the Bab el Mandeb closed and the Red Sea evaporated to an empty hot dry salt-floored sink. Effects causing this would be:

  • A “race” between the Red Sea widening and Perim Island erupting filling the Bab el Mandeb with lava .
  • The lowering of world sea level during the Ice Ages due to much water being locked up in the ice caps.

Today, surface water temperatures remain relatively constant at 21–25 °C (70–77 °F ) and temperature and visibility remain good to around 660 feet (200 m), but the sea is known for its strong winds and tricky local currents.

In terms of salinity, the Red Sea is greater than the world average, approximately 4 percent. This is due to several factors: 1) high rate of evaporation and very little precipitation, 2) a lack of significant rivers or streams draining into the sea, and 3) limited connection with the Indian Ocean (and its lower water salinity).

A number of volcanic islands rise from the center of the sea. Most are dormant, but in 2007, Jabal al-Tair island erupted violently.

Living resources

Red Sea coral and marine fish

The Red Sea is a rich and diverse ecosystem . More than 1,100 species of fish [3] have been recorded in the Red Sea, with approximately 10 percent of these being endemic to the Red Sea. [4] This also includes around 75 species of deepwater fish. [3]

The rich diversity is in part due to the 2,000 km (1,240 mi) of coral reef extending along its coastline; these fringing reefs are 5000-7000 years old and are largely formed of stony acropora and porites corals . The reefs form platforms and sometimes lagoons along the coast and occasional other features such as cylinders (such as the blue hole at Dahab). These coastal reefs are also visited by pelagic species of red sea fish, including some of the 44 species of shark.

The special biodiversity of the area is recognized by the Egyptian government, who set up the Ras Mohammed National Park in 1983. The rules and regulations governing this area protect local wildlife, which has become a major attraction for tourists, in particular for diving enthusiasts. Divers and snorkelers should be aware that although most Red Sea species are innocuous, a few are hazardous to humans. [5]

Other marine habitats include sea grass beds, salt pans, mangroves, and salt marshes .

Mineral resources

In terms of mineral resources the major constituents of the Red Sea sediments are as follows:

  • Biogenic constituents:
Nannofossils, foraminifera , pteropods, siliceous fossils
  • Volcanogenic constituents:
Tuffites, volcanic ash, montmorillonite, cristobalite, zeolites
  • Terrigenous constituents:
Quartz , feldspars , rock fragments, mica , heavy minerals, clay minerals
  • Authigenic minerals:
Sulfide minerals, aragonite, Mg- calcite , protodolomite, dolomite , quartz, chalcedony
  • Evaporite minerals:
Magnesite, gypsum , anhydrite, halite , polyhalite
  • Brine precipitate:
Fe-montmorillonite, goethite, hematite , siderite, rhodochrosite, pyrite , sphalerite , anhydrite

Desalination plants

There is extensive demand of desalinated water to meet the requirement of the population and the industries along the Red Sea.

There are at least 18 desalination plants along the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia which discharge warm brine and treatment chemicals ( chlorine and anti-scalants) that may cause bleaching and mortality of corals and diseases to the fish stocks. Although this is only a localized phenomenon, it may intensify with time and have a profound impact on the fishing industry.

The water from the Red Sea is also utilized by oil refineries and cement factories for cooling purposes. Used water drained back into the coastal zones may cause harm to the nearshore environment of the Red Sea.

Facts and figures at a glance

  • Length: ~1,900 km (1,181 mi)—79 percent of the eastern Red Sea with numerous coastal inlets
  • Maximum Width: ~306–354 km (190–220 mi)—Massawa (Eritrea)
  • Minimum Width: ~26–29 km (16–18 mi)—Bab el Mandeb Strait (Yemen)
  • Average Width: ~280 km (174 mi)
  • Average Depth: ~490 m (1,608 ft)
  • Maximum Depth: ~2,850 m (9,350 ft)
  • Surface Area: 438-450 x 10² km² (16,900–17,400 sq mi)
  • Volume: 215–251 x 10³ km³ (51,600–60,200 cu mi)
  • Approximately 40 percent of the Red Sea is quite shallow (under 100 m/330 ft), and about 25 percent is under 50 m (164 ft) deep.
  • About 15 percent of the Red Sea is over 1,000 m (3,300 ft) depth that forms the deep axial trough.
  • Shelf breaks are marked by coral reefs
  • Continental slope has an irregular profile (series of steps down to ~500 m/1,640 ft)
  • Center of Red Sea has a narrow trough (~1,000 m/3,281 ft; some depths may exceed 2,500 m/8,202 ft)

Some of the research cruises in the Red Sea

Numerous research cruises have been conducted:

  • Arabia Felix (1761-1767)
  • Vitiaz (1886-1889)
  • Valdivia (1898-1894)
  • Pola (1897-98) Southern Red Sea and (1895/96—Northern Red Sea
  • Ammiraglio Magnaghi (1923/24)
  • Snellius (1929–1930)
  • Mabahiss (1933-1934 and 1934-1935)
  • Albatross (1948)
  • Manihine (1849 and 1952)
  • Calypso (1955)
  • Atlantis and Vema (1958)
  • Xarifa (1961)
  • Meteor (1961)
  • Glomar Challenger (1971)
  • Sonne (1997)
  • Meteor (1999)

Tourism

The sea is known for its spectacular dive sites such as Ras Mohammed, SS ”Thistlegorm” (shipwreck), Elphinstone, The Brothers and Rocky Island in Egypt , Dolphin Reef in Eilat, Israel and less known sites in Sudan such as Sanganeb, Abington, Angarosh and Shaab Rumi.

The Red Sea became known a sought-after diving destination after the expeditions of Hans Hass in the 1950s, and later by Jacques-Yves Cousteau. Popular tourist resorts include Sharm-El-Sheikh and Hurghada (and recently Marsa Alam) and Dahab in Egypt , as well as Eilat, Israel , in an area known as the Red Sea Riviera.

Bordering countries

Countries bordering the Red Sea include:

  • Northern shore:
    • Egypt
    • Israel
    • Jordan
  • Eastern shore:
    • Saudi Arabia
    • Yemen
  • Western shore:
    • Sudan
    • Egypt
    • Eritrea
  • Southern shore:
    • Djibouti
    • Eritrea

Towns and cities

Towns and cities on the Red Sea coast include:

  • Flag of Saudi Arabia Alwajh (الوجه)
  • Flag of Saudi Arabia Alqunfutha (القنفذة)
  • Flag of Saudi Arabia Alleeth (الليث)
  • Flag of Saudi Arabia Arrayes (الرايس)
  • Flag of Saudi Arabia Dhuba (ضبا)
  • Flag of Saudi Arabia Jeddah (جدة)
  • Flag of Saudi Arabia Rabigh (رابغ)
  • Flag of Saudi Arabia Umluj (أملج)
  • Flag of Saudi Arabia Yanbu (ينبع)
  • Flag of Israel Eilat (אילת)
  • Flag of Jordan Aqaba (العقبة)
  • Flag of Eritrea Hirgigo (ሕርጊጎ)
  • Flag of Eritrea Asseb (ዓሳብ)
  • Flag of Eritrea Massawa (ምጽዋ)
  • Flag of Sudan Port Sudan (بورت سودان)
  • Flag of Sudan Suakin (سواكن)
  • Flag of Yemen Al Hudaydah (الحديدة)
  • Flag of Egypt Al-Qusair (القصير)
  • Flag of Egypt Dahab (دهب)
  • Flag of Egypt El Gouna (الجونة)
  • Flag of Egypt Hala’ib (حلايب)
  • Flag of Egypt Hurghada (الغردقة)
  • Flag of Egypt Marsa Alam (مرسى علم)
  • Flag of Egypt Nuweiba (نويبع)
  • Flag of Egypt Port Safaga (ميناء سفاجا)
  • Flag of Egypt Sharm el Sheikh (شرم الشيخ)
  • Flag of Egypt Soma Bay (سوما باي)
  • Flag of Egypt El Suweis (السويس)
  • Flag of Egypt Taba (طابا)

Notes

  1. 1.0 1.1 Felipe Fernandez-Armesto, Pathfinders: A Global History of Exploration (W.W. Norton & Company, 2006, ISBN 0393062597 ).
  2. ↑ W. Gordon East, The Geography behind History (W.W. Norton & Company, 1965, ISBN 0393004198 ).
  3. 3.0 3.1 R. Froese and D. Pauly, FishBase. Retrieved June 4, 2008.
  4. ↑ A. Siliotti, Fishes of the Red Sea (Verona: Geodia, 2003, ISBN 8887177422 ).
  5. ↑ E. Lieske and R.F. Myers, Coral Reef Guide; Red Sea (London: HarperCollins, 2004, ISBN 0007159862 ).

References

  • The Catholic Encyclopedia. Red Sea Retrieved June 4, 2008.
  • Cousteau, Jacques Yves. 1971. Life and Death in a Coral Sea. The Undersea Discoveries of Jacques-Yves Cousteau. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.
  • Farid, Abdel Majid. 1984. The Red Sea: Prospects for Stability. London: Croom Helm in association with the Arab Research Centre. ISBN 978-0709905431 .
  • Hamblin, W. Kenneth, and Eric H. Christiansen. Earth’s Dynamic Systems, 8th edition. Upper Saddle River: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1998. ISBN 0137453736 .

Credits

New World Encyclopedia writers and editors rewrote and completed the Wikipedia article in accordance with New World Encyclopedia standards . This article abides by terms of the Creative Commons CC-by-sa 3.0 License (CC-by-sa), which may be used and disseminated with proper attribution. Credit is due under the terms of this license that can reference both the New World Encyclopedia contributors and the selfless volunteer contributors of the Wikimedia Foundation. To cite this article click here for a list of acceptable citing formats.The history of earlier contributions by wikipedians is accessible to researchers here:

  • Red Sea   history

The history of this article since it was imported to New World Encyclopedia:

  • History of “Red Sea”

Note: Some restrictions may apply to use of individual images which are separately licensed.

Retrieved from http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/p/index.php?title=Red_Sea&oldid=989212

EN
EN
FR
DE
JA
CN
REEF CARE RECIPES
Reef Care Recipes
Red Sea’s Reef Care Recipes are an easy and effective guide to maintaining your reef aquarium. To get started, click on the aquarium type below that best describes your system. Learn more
Mixed Reef Learn more
SPS Dominant Learn more
Ultra Low Nutrient System Learn more
Marine Fish Learn more
REEF CARE PRODUCTS
ABOUT REEF CARE
RED SEA SALTS
SUPPLEMENTS & TEST KITS
CORAL FOODS
TREATMENTS
SUBSTRATES & CARBON
ABOUT RED SEA SALTS Unique formulas of natural ingredients that guarantee coral health & vitality Learn more
CORAL PRO SALT Optimal levels of elements for vibrant coral growth. Ideal for Mixed Reefs and SPS Frags Learn more
RED SEA SALT Parameters of NSW with an elevated KH. Ideal for SPS,
UNLS and Marine Fish tanks.
Learn more
SEAWATER REFRACTOMETER High-accuracy seawater refractometer Learn more
MyBatch™ Get our QC lab analysis of the specific batch of salt you purchased Learn more
REEF FOUNDATION ELEMENTS Ca | Mg | KH Defines & maintains the correctly balanced levels of Calcium, Alkalinity & Magnesium Learn more
REEF TRACE ELEMENTS 31 Elements in a 4-Part Program Provides the 31 minor and trace elements necessary for coral vitality and color Learn more
ALGAE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM NO3:PO4– X | NO3 | PO4 Complete control of Nitrates and Phosphates, and elimination of nuisance algae Learn more
MARINE CARE PROGRAM NH3/NH4 | NO3 | NO2 | pH | KH | Ca | Mg | PO4 Tests and Supplements for the maintenance of Marine Fish tanks Learn more
TANK MATURATION PROGRAM Nitro Bac | Bacto-Start | NO3:PO4-X | KH Coralline Gro Biological Maturation Program for all Marine and Reef Systems Learn more
Supplements
CALCIUM+ FOUNDATION A Ca | Sr | Ba Learn more
KH/ALKALINITY FOUNDATION B KH Learn more
MAGNESIUM FOUNDATION C Mg Learn more
SKELETAL ELEMENTS FOUNDATION ABC+ Ca | Sr | KH | Mg | K | Br | I Learn more
CALCIUM+ | KH/ALKALINITY | MAGNESIUM Ca | Mg | KH | Sr | Ba Learn more
Test Kits
FOUNDATION PRO MULTI TEST KIT Ca | KH | Mg Learn more
CALCIUM PRO REEF TEST KIT Ca Learn more
KH | ALKALINITY PRO REEF TEST KIT KH Learn more
MAGNESIUM PRO REEF TEST KIT Mg Learn more
Supplements
IODINE+ TRACE COLORS A I2 | Br2 | F2 Learn more
POTASSIUM+ TRACE COLORS B K & Trace elements Learn more
IRON+ TRACE COLORS C Fe + blend of 7 complementary elements Learn more
BIOACTIVE ELEMENTS TRACE COLORS D Blend of 18 essential trace elements Learn more
TRACE-COLORS A | B | C | D Value Pack Learn more
Test Kits
TRACE-COLORS PRO MULTI TEST KIT I2 | K | Fe Learn more
IODINE PRO REEF TEST KIT I2 Learn more
POTASSIUM PRO REEF TEST KIT K Learn more
Supplements
NO3:PO4-X ALGAE MANAGEMENT NO3 | PO4 Learn more
Test Kits
ALGAE CONTROL PRO MULTI TEST KIT NO3 | PO4 Learn more
NITRATE PRO REEF TEST KIT NO3 Learn more
PHOSPHATE PRO REEF TEST KIT PO4 Learn more
Supplements
KH CORALLINE GRO MARINE CARE KH Learn more
Test Kits
MARINE CARE MULTI TEST KIT NH3/NH4 | NO3 | NO2 | pH | KH Learn more
AMMONIA MARINE TEST KIT NH3/NH4 Learn more
NITRATE | NITRITE MARINE TEST KIT NO3 | NO2 Learn more
PH/ALKALINITY MARINE TEST KIT pH | KH Learn more
PHOSPHATE MARINE TEST KIT PO4 Learn more
CALCIUM MARINE TEST KIT Ca Learn more
MAGNESIUM MARINE TEST KIT Mg Learn more
Supplements
REEF MATURE STARTER KIT Nitro Bac | Bacto-Start | NO3:PO4-X | KH Coralline Gro Learn more
Test Kits
MARINE CARE MULTI TEST KIT NH3/NH4 | NO3 | NO2 | pH | KH Learn more
CORAL NUTRITION PROGRAM Carbohydrates, Amino Acids & Vitamins Provides the complete nutritional needs of all corals in a 2-part formula Learn more
REEF ENERGY A Carbohydrates Carbohydrate supplement of dissolved and suspended energy sources Learn more
REEF ENERGY B Amino Acids & Vitamins Amino acids and vitamin supplement essential for coral metabolic activity Learn more
REEF ENERGY A | B 2-Part Formula – Intro Pack Provides all the carbohydrates, amino acids and vitamins needed for coral growth and coloration Learn more
AIPTASIA-X Aiptasia Treatment Kit Guaranteed, reef-safe elimination of Aiptasia Learn more
COPPER MARINE TEST KIT Accurate measurement of total copper Learn more
REEF BASE Premium live and dry aragonite sands for marine and reef aquariums Learn more
REEF-SPEC™ CARBON Highly activated carbon for marine and reef aquariums Learn more
MICRON FILTER BAGS A range of high quality, reusable felt and thin-mesh aquarium filter bags Learn more
MEDIA BAG High quality draw-string nylon media bag Learn more
AQUARIUMS & HARDWARE
REEF-SPEC PHILOSOPHY
AQUARIUM SYSTEMS
HARDWARE
MAX® | All in One Systems
MAX NANO Fully-featured 75 liter/20 gallon Plug & Play® Reef System Learn more
MAX E-SERIES Mid-size fully-featured reef systems Learn more
MAX S-SERIES Ultimate full-size, fully-featured reef systems Learn more
COMPARE AQUARIUMS
COMPARE AQUARIUMS Compare & Select For The Perfect Reef Learn more
REEFER™ | Reef Ready SYSTEMS
REEFER™ SYSTEMS Rimless reef-ready systems for advanced hobbyists Learn more
REEFER™ DELUXE SYSTEMS The Red Sea Reefer combined with an advanced LED lighting system Learn more
REEFER™ PENINSULA SYSTEMS Rimless reef-ready systems for advanced hobbyists Learn more
GO BEHIND THE SCENES
GO BEHIND THE SCENES See what goes into crafting a Red Sea aquarium. Learn more
 
DIY AQUARIUM NET COVER Keep your finny friends safe Learn more
SEAWATER REFRACTOMETER High-accuracy seawater refractometer Learn more
C-SKIM 1800 Advanced protein skimmer Learn more
MICRON FILTER BAGS A range of high quality, reusable felt and thin-mesh aquarium filter bags Learn more
MEDIA BAG High quality draw-string nylon media bag Learn more
FILTER MEDIA CUP An easy-clean alternative to the 4”/10cm micron filter bag. Learn more
SUPPORT & REGISTRATION
 
PRODUCT SUPPORT
TECH SUPPORT
FAQ
AQUARIUM REGISTRATION
MANUALS
VIDEOS
DOWNLOAD myAI
WARRANTY
BLOG
WHERE TO BUY
SHOP LOCATOR
RED SEA DISTRIBUTORS
USEFUL TOOLS
MyBATCH™ SERVICE
COMPARE AQUARIUMS
REEF CARE RECIPES®
KEEP IN TOUCH
GET OUR NEWSLETTER
FOLLOW US ON FACEBOOK
JOIN OUR FACEBOOK GROUP
FOLLOW US ON YOUTUBE
CONTACT US
CAREER OPPORTUNITIES
ABOUT
REEF CARE RECIPES®
REEF CARE RECIPES®
REEF CARE PRODUCTS
ABOUT REEF CARE
|
RED SEA SALTS
ABOUT RED SEA SALTS

CORAL PRO SALT

RED SEA SALT

SEAWATER REFRACTOMETER

MyBATCH™ SERVICE

Red Sea Salts

Combining science with nature

Red Sea Marine Salts Combining Science with Nature. Red Sea Salt & Coral Pro Salt

Coral Pro Salt

Optimal ratio & levels of elements for accelerated coral growth

Red Sea's Coral Pro salt for Coral reef and marine aquarium systems

Red Sea Salts

Ideal for mature reef and low

nutrient systems

Red Sea Salt

Seawater Refractometer
High Accuracy Seawater Refractometer
Red Sea Seawater Refractometer

my-batch-banner-DROPDOWN

|
SUPPLEMENTS & TEST KITS
REEF FOUNDATION ELEMENTSCa | Mg | KH

REEF TRACE ELEMENTS31 Elements in a 4-Part Program

ALGAE MANAGEMENT PROGRAMNO3:PO4– X | NO3 | PO4

MARINE CARE PROGRAMNH3/NH4 | NO3 | NO2 | pH | KH | Ca | Mg | PO4

TANK MATURATION PROGRAMNitro Bac | Bacto-Start | NO3:PO4-X | KH Coralline Gro

Reef Foundation Program

Defines and maintains the correctly balanced levels of calcium, 

magnesium and carbonates

Reef Foundation Program - Red Sea - Drop Down

    Calcium | Magnesium
Carbonates

Coral Coloration Program

Accurately replenishes the 31 minor and trace elements that enable corals to display their natural colors

Drop-Down-Colors

 

 

Iodine | Pottasium | Iron |  Bromine | Flurine

Algae Management Program

Controlled reduction of nitrates and phosphates, prevents nuisance algae & enhances coral coloration

 

DropDown-Algae-Control-program

 

Nitrates  |  Phosphates

Marine Care Program

Ensures complete biological maturation and algae management

 

 

Red Sea Marine Care Program MCP

NH3/NH4 | NO3 | NO2 | pH | KH

Marine Care Program

Ensures complete biological maturation and algae management

 

 

Red Sea Marine Care Program MCP

NH3/NH4 | NO3 | NO2 | pH | KH
|
CORAL FOODS
CORAL NUTRITION PROGRAMCarbohydrates, Amino Acids & Vitamins

REEF ENERGY A SUPPLEMENTCarbohydrates

REEF ENERGY B SUPPLEMENTAmino Acids & Vitamins

REEF ENERGY A | B SUPPLEMENT2-Part Formula – Intro Pack

Coral Nutrition Program

An organic complex of dissolved & suspended energy sources

 

 

 

DropDown-Nutrition

|
TREATMENTS
AIPTASIA-XAiptasia Treatment Kit

COPPERMARINE TEST KIT

Aiptasia-X

Reef-safe Aiptasia Treatment Kit

Dropdown-Aiptasia-New

|
SUBSTRATES & CARBON
REEF BASE

REEF-SPEC™ CARBON

MICRON FILTER BAGS

MEDIA BAG

Reef Base

Premium aragonite for

marine & reef aquariums

Dropdown-Reef-Base

REEF-SPEC™ Carbon

Highly activated carbon for marine & reef aquariums

REEF-SPEC™ Carbon

Micron filter bags

A range of high quality, reusable aquarium filter bags

Red Sea Micron filter bags For saltwater Coral Reefs And Marine Fish Aquariums


AQUARIUMS & HARDWARE
REEF-SPEC PHILOSOPHY
|
AQUARIUM SYSTEMS
COMPARE AQUARIUMS

MAX®AQUARIUM SYSTEMS

REEFER™ SERIES

Red Sea REEF SYSTEMS

Compare & Select For The Perfect Reef

Red Sea MAX Coral Reef Systems

Complete plug & Play

Red Sea REEFER™ Systems

Rimless Reef Ready Systems for advanced hobbyists

|
HARDWARE
SEAWATER REFRACTOMETER

C-SKIM 1800

MICRON FILTER BAGS

MEDIA BAG

DIY AQUARIUM NET COVER

FILTER MEDIA CUP

Seawater Refractometer
High Accuracy Seawater Refractometer
Red Sea Seawater Refractometer

Protein Skimmers

C-Skim 1800 | Prizm Delux
Berlin Airlift 60/90

Drop-Down-Skimmers

Micron filter bags

A range of high quality, reusable aquarium filter bags

Red Sea Micron filter bags For saltwater Coral Reefs And Marine Fish Aquariums




SUPPORT & REGISTARTION
PRODUCT SUPPORT
TECH SUPPORT

FAQ

AQUARIUM REGISTRATION

MANUALS

VIDEOS

DOWNLOAD myAI

WARRANTY

BLOG

MAX Registration

Sign up to join our Red Sea internet community

|
WHERE TO BUY
SHOP LOCATOR

DISTRIBUTORS

|
USEFUL TOOLS
MyBATCH™ SERVICE

COMPARE AQAURIUMS

REEF CARE RECIPES®

my-batch-banner-DROPDOWN

|
KEEP IN TOUCH
GET OUR NEWSLETTER

FOLLOW US ON FACEBOOK

JOIN OUR FACEBOOK GROUP

FOLLOW US ON YOUTUBE

CONTACT US

CAREER OPPORTUNITIES

ABOUT

Tech Support Inquiry
SHOP LOCATOR
PRODUCT REGISTRATION
NEWSLETTER
Home
/
Red Sea Salts
Red Sea Salts
RED SEA SALTS
CORAL PRO SALT
RED SEA SALT
SEAWATER REFRACTOMETER

Red Sea Salts

Unique combinations of natural ingredients formulated for 4 aquarium types, guarantee coral health & vitality

 

 

The new formulas of Red Sea Salts the result of years of research into the physiological demands of corals in the reef aquarium environment.

 

These formulas are made with natural sodium chloride from the Red Sea that provides an unparalleled formulation and homogeneity of all trace elements, with part of the living reef in every harvested grain.

 

Red Sea Salts unique combination of the formulas and natural ingredients guarantees coral health and vitality.

 

The new Red Sea salts formulas are a fundamental part of Red Sea’s new Reef Care Program , providing you with the ability to maintain advanced reef keeping results.

Catalog
FAQ

The Source of Red Sea Salts

 

Visit our Youtube Channel >>


The Red Sea, a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean lying between Africa and Asia is one of the most beautiful, exotic and fascinating natural wonders on earth. The Red Sea supports the world’s northern-most tropical reef and is an oasis of living creatures, reefs and coral formations, many of which are unique to the region. The Red Sea is blessed with the largest diversity of marine fauna of all tropical reefs around the world and has the highest density of coral per cubic meter of sea.

The unique bio-diversity of the living reef inside this magnificent region is our inspiration and the Red Sea is the source of our salts, allowing us to bring you a blend of science and nature with the living reef in every harvested grain.

 

Red Sea Marine Salts


Red Sea Salts Harvest

From the pristine waters of the Red Sea, seawater is taken and transferred through a number of shallow ponds undergoing a natural evaporation process under the dry heat of the desert sun.

In the first pond, the seawater evaporates from its natural salinity level of 40 ppt to a salinity of approximately 250 ppt, removing all of the calcium and heavy metals from the water in the process. In subsequent ponds, further evaporation leads to the formation of sodium chloride crystals leaving other ions such as magnesium and potassium, in concentrated brine. At the end of the evaporation process, this brine is drained away. The remaining crystals of raw sodium chloride undergo a proprietary process of washing and drying to remove organic and any other impurities.

 

Red Sea Marine Salts harvest

 

The end result is pure, white, food grade crystals of sodium chloride that comprises 47 of the other elements which are naturally present in the Red Sea. This element- enriched sodium chloride forms the basis for both of Red Sea’s salts mixes and provides a blend of science and nature with the living reef in every harvested grain.
Free from excessive levels of heavy metals or organics, this sodium chloride, with its natural array of minor and trace elements represents over 72% of the contents of Red Sea Salts delivering a level of quality and homogeneity almost impossible to match artificially.

 

The final stage in the Red Sea salts process is to add a mix of calcium, magnesium, potassium and other elements consistently to the sodium chloride. This is done by working in small batches with strict quality control measures.

 

The absence of excessive levels of heavy metals in our Red Sea Salts materials prevents the need for chemical binders that adversely affect the function of protein skimmers.


The Red Sea Salts Foundation Elements …It’s all in the balance

Red Sea Marine Salt foundation elements graph

 

Natural seawater includes over 70 chemical elements and although most of the elements influence the water parameters, a few of them have a more significant role in its overall chemical stability.
These elements form the foundation of the reef environment and they include the three major elements: calcium, magnesium and bi-carbonates. These three ‘foundation elements’ have a major effect on the water chemistry (pH stability, alkalinity, seawater ionic strength) and on many of the coral’s biological processes (skeleton formation, ion- exchange, photosynthesis).

 

Unlike the natural reef environment, where there is an immense reservoir of the foundation elements, the reef aquarium has limited resources that are quickly depleted by the aquarium inhabitants. Therefore, in order to enable sustainable coral growth it is necessary to maintain higher than natural levels of the foundation elements.

 

Original research carried out in Red Sea’s laboratory has shown that in a closed system (an aquarium) a specific ratio between the foundation elements of calcium, magnesium and carbonates (alkalinity) is necessary for coral vitality and the formation of a robust aragonite coral skeleton. This ratio must be maintained especially when increasing the levels of the foundation elements above the natural sea levels.

 

Red Sea salts are made according to these ideal ratios and remove the need to adjust the levels of foundation elements after water changes and significantly improving the wellbeing of corals.


Red Sea Salts - Coral Skeletogenesis

 

Technical notes:

Skeletogenesis:

Corals build approximately 90% of their skeleton by combining calcium and carbonate ions from the water to form aragonite (CaCO3). The rest of the skeleton is made up from magnesite (MgCO3), strontianite (SrCO3), calcite (a more brittle crystal structure of CaCO3), CaF2 and other minor and trace minerals. The foundation elements complement each other in the formation of coral skeleton and, if not available in the correct ratio, one of them will quickly become the limiting factor of healthy coral growth.

 

 

Accelerated Coral Growth:

Corals need to invest energy in transporting the foundation and other elements necessary for skeletal growth from the surrounding water through their soft tissue. Elevated levels of the foundation elements create a more positive ionic pressure making this process much more efficient (less energy required per gram of skeleton).

Therefore balanced, elevated levels of the foundation elements will result in accelerated coral growth rates.

 

 

Effects of unbalanced Foundation elements:

In low levels of Mg²+ and/or Sr²+ coral skeleton will develop with a higher proportion of calcite making it more brittle and more susceptible to damage. Low magnesium or high calcium levels can lead to alkalinity drops. High alkalinity with calcium at saturation levels will cause precipitation, leading to low calcium levels.


 

relevant products:
Red Sea Coral Pro Salt
Red Sea Salt
Seawater Refractometer
Marine Care Test Kit
Back to Top
FOLLOW US:
PRODUCT REGISTRATION
SHOP LOCATOR
NEWSLETTER
Support & Registration
Tech Support
FAQ
Aquarium Registration
Manuals
Videos
Download myAi
Blog
Shop Locator
Red Sea Distributors
MyBatch™ Service
Compare Aquariums
Reef Care Recipes
Join Newsletter
Contact Us
Subscribe to Youtube
Follow on Facebook
About
Privacy Policy
Reef Care Program
Reef Foundation Elements
Calcium+ Supplement
Kh/alkalinity Supplement
Magnesium Supplement
Skeletal Elements
Calcium+ | Kh/alkalinity | Magnesium
Foundation Pro Multi Test Kit
Calcium Test Kit
Kh/alkalinity Test Kit
Magnesium Test Kit
Reef Trace Elements
Iodine+ Supplement
Potassium+ Supplement
Iron+ Supplement
Bioactive Elements Supplement
Trace-colors A | B | C | D Supplement
Trace-colors Pro Multi Test Kit
Iodine Pro Reef Test Kit
Potassium Pro Reef Test Kit
Aiptasia-X
Copper
Marine Care Program
Tank Maturation
Reef Mature Starter Kit
Kh Coralline Gro Supplement
Marine Care Multi Test Kit
Ammonia Marine Marine Test Kit
Ph\alkalinity Marine Marine Test Kit
Nitrate | Nitrite Marine Test Kit
Calcium Marine Test Kit
Phosphate Marine Test Kit
Magnesium Marine Test Kit
Aquarium Systems
Compare Aquariums
MAX aquarium Systems
MAX S-Series
MAX E-Series
MAX NANO
REEFER™ Aquarium Systems
REEFER™ Deluxe Systems
REEFER™ Peninsula Systems
Reef-spec Philosophy
Algae Management Program
NO3:PO4-X Algae Management
Algae Control Pro Multi Test Kit
Nitrate Pro Reef Test Kit
Phosphate Pro Reef Test Kit
Coral Nutrition Program
Reef Energy A Supplement
Reef Energy B Supplement
Reef Energy A | B 2-Part Formula
Red Sea Salts
About Red Sea Salts
Red Sea Salt
Coral Pro Salt
Seawater Refractometer
Red Sea Reef Base
MyBatch™
Substrates & Carbon
Reef Base
REEF-SPEC™ CARBON
Micron Filter Bags
Hardware
Seawater Refractometer
C-SKIM 1800
Micron Filter Bags
Customizable DIY Aquarium Net Cover
© 2018 Red Sea. All rights reserved
Web design & development