citing an article quotes or italics

GUIDE TO CITATION, SOURCES, QUOTES

When you refer to a source in your paper, this is called a
"citation." The source is then listed at the end of the paper in the
"References" section (called "bibliography" in other styles and "Works Cited" in
MLA style)

TYPE OF CITATIONHOW THE CITATION
LOOKS IN THE TEXT
EXPLANATION
Citing a source
for the first time in your paper
Americans watch a great
deal of television, estimated at seven and one-half hours per household per
day (Grimbsy, 1994, p. 34).
This is called a
"full cite:" name, year and page number. If you cite this source again in
the paper, omit the year.
Citing a source
with multiple pages (consecutive)
Americans watch a great
deal of television, estimated at seven and one-half hours per household per
day (Grimbsy, 1994, pp. 34-35).
Use "p." for one
page, "pp." for more than one.
Citing multiple
pages, non consecutive.
Americans watch a great
deal of television, estimated at seven and one-half hours per household per
day (Grimbsy, 1994, pp. 34, 74-76).
This is rare.
Citing the same
source, with no intervening other source.
Americans watch a great
deal of television, estimated at seven and one-half hours per household per
day (Grimbsy, 1994, p. 34). Some members of the audience, however, may be
asleep in front of an operating television (p. 210).
Here, all that
is needed is the page, since the reader is supposed to assume that you’re
still on the same source.
Citing the same
source, with an intervening other source.
Americans watch a great
deal of television, estimated at seven and one-half hours per household per
day (Grimbsy, 1994, p. 34). Some researchers question whether this is a
meaningful figure (Swartz, 1990, p. 12) Some members of the audience may be
asleep in front of an operating television (Grimbsy, p. 210).
Since the Swartz
citation was in the middle, you put the name back in the cite, but you do
not need the year again, unless you have more than one source by the same
author.
Citing a source
with two authors.
Americans watch a great
deal of television, estimated at seven and one-half hours per household per
day (Grimbsy & Thaylor, 1994, pp. 34-35).
Use both names
and the "&" rather than the word "and."
Citing a source
with three or more authors
Americans watch a great
deal of television, estimated at seven and one-half hours per household per
day (Grimbsy et al., 1994, pp. 34-35).
NOTE: this is a
modification of the APA style. Strict APA style requires that you use all
the names the first time you cite, then the "et al." in subsequent
citations. I don’t care which way you want to do this.
Citing a source
with no author (editorials, articles with no bylines, certain non-print
media)
Americans watch a great
deal of television, estimated at seven and one-half hours per household per
day (TV watchers rise, 1994).
If this were
from a small unattributed "box" note in Advertising Age, and it had
no authors, it would be listed in references under the title of the box.
Citing an entire
article in a journal
That Americans watch a
great deal of television is well documented (Grimbsy, 1994).
No page number
where you are citing the results/ideas of the entire article.
Citing a
secondary source
DeWitt’s research shows
that people watch a great deal of television in this culture (Grimbsy, 1993,
p. 45).
Here you are
citing DeWitt, but you haven’t read her (the primary source). Cite the
author of the source you used.
Quoting a
secondary source.
DeWitt said "…people
watch more TV than ever before." (Quoted in Grimbsy, 1993, p. 45).
This is not
usually done, but you can. Notice the ellipsis (…) at the beginning of the
statement to indicate that the quote is not the beginning of a sentence.
there is a period at the end because that’s part of the original quote.
Otherwise, there would be another ellipsis.
Citing an
article in a magazine
Americans watch a great
deal of television, estimated at seven and one-half hours per household per
day (Grimbsy, 1994, p. 34).
This is the
author of the article, not the editors of the magazine. In the references,
this would be listed under Grimbsy.
When the
author’s name is in the text
Harold Grimsby claims that
Americans watch a great deal of television. His research claims an estimated
seven and one-half hours per household per day (1994, p. 34).
Here you don’t
need the name, since you mentioned it in the sentence.
When there are
many studies showing the same thing
Current research indicates
that people watch a great deal of television (Grimbsy, 1994, p.24; Swartz,
1989, p. 12; Joyner, 1993, p. 30).
This is usually
found at the beginning of your context when you are making a point about a
very general idea on your topic. The semicolon separates sources.
Emendation:
adding a word to a direct quote for clarity
"People watch [TV] more
than four hours a day each." (Grimsby, 1986, p. 341).
The original
quote may have been "People watch it more…" so you put the [TV] in square
brackets to indicate that you’re correcting the quote for clarity’s sake.
When the quote
contains an error.
"People are watching
televisions (sic) too much." (Grimsby, p. 23)
The use of
"televisions" may be an error, but if it’s what the author said, leave it
and use (sic) to indicate that it was in the original.
When you want to
stress something in a quote
People watch television
more than four hours a day
(Grimsby, 1989, p. 22, emphasis added).
If you are doing
the underlining (or italics) then day so in the cite.
When the author
wanted to stress something in a quote
People watch television
more than four hours a day
(Grimsby, 1989, p. 22, emphasis in original).
The original
quote contained the underlining or italics; you are not adding the emphasis.
When you edit a
quote
"…people watch TV …
more than four hours a day…"
Three dots (no
space between) indicate you are leaving out something for the sake of
clarity or brevity.
Website"Evidence
of causality in television violence is problematic." (Smith, 2003, �
3).
If available,
use the paragraph symbol, � to indicate the position in a website. You
can also use "para" if you have trouble inserting the symbol.
   

References

The general construction of APA style references is:

Last Name, First Initial. (Year). Title in italics
but only the first word is capitalized
. Place:

           
Publisher’s Name.

using a "hanging indent." See many examples in most of the textbooks you have
from your major or almost any communication journal.

FILM EXAMPLE:

Scorsese, M. (Producer), and Lonergan, K.
(Writer/Director). (2003).  You can
count on me
. 

       
[Motion Picture].  United States:  Paramount
Pictures.

 

Note on websites

Generally, do not use a website with no author, especially Wikopedia. 
Although much of the information in Wikopedia is good, a great deal of it is
plagiarized from other sources.  In any case, if there is no author, it is
generally not a legitimate source.  (A couple of exceptions are made for government
documents, reports, and some types of data like TV ratings, film box office
reports, etc.).

Otherwise, the reference entry for an online source follows the same protocol
as any other, except that you indicate the URL.  http://www.apastyle.org/elecsource.html
has examples, including:

Glueckauf, R. L., Whitton, J., Baxter,
J., Kain, J., Vogelgesang, S.,Hudson, M., et al. (1998, July). Videocounseling
for families of rural teens with epilepsy — Project update. Telehealth
News,2
(2). Retrieved from http://www.telehealth.net/subscribe/newslettr4a.html1

 

GUIDE TO CITATION, SOURCES, QUOTES

When you refer to a source in your paper, this is called a
"citation." The source is then listed at the end of the paper in the
"References" section (called "bibliography" in other styles and "Works Cited" in
MLA style)

TYPE OF CITATIONHOW THE CITATION
LOOKS IN THE TEXT
EXPLANATION
Citing a source
for the first time in your paper
Americans watch a great
deal of television, estimated at seven and one-half hours per household per
day (Grimbsy, 1994, p. 34).
This is called a
"full cite:" name, year and page number. If you cite this source again in
the paper, omit the year.
Citing a source
with multiple pages (consecutive)
Americans watch a great
deal of television, estimated at seven and one-half hours per household per
day (Grimbsy, 1994, pp. 34-35).
Use "p." for one
page, "pp." for more than one.
Citing multiple
pages, non consecutive.
Americans watch a great
deal of television, estimated at seven and one-half hours per household per
day (Grimbsy, 1994, pp. 34, 74-76).
This is rare.
Citing the same
source, with no intervening other source.
Americans watch a great
deal of television, estimated at seven and one-half hours per household per
day (Grimbsy, 1994, p. 34). Some members of the audience, however, may be
asleep in front of an operating television (p. 210).
Here, all that
is needed is the page, since the reader is supposed to assume that you’re
still on the same source.
Citing the same
source, with an intervening other source.
Americans watch a great
deal of television, estimated at seven and one-half hours per household per
day (Grimbsy, 1994, p. 34). Some researchers question whether this is a
meaningful figure (Swartz, 1990, p. 12) Some members of the audience may be
asleep in front of an operating television (Grimbsy, p. 210).
Since the Swartz
citation was in the middle, you put the name back in the cite, but you do
not need the year again, unless you have more than one source by the same
author.
Citing a source
with two authors.
Americans watch a great
deal of television, estimated at seven and one-half hours per household per
day (Grimbsy & Thaylor, 1994, pp. 34-35).
Use both names
and the "&" rather than the word "and."
Citing a source
with three or more authors
Americans watch a great
deal of television, estimated at seven and one-half hours per household per
day (Grimbsy et al., 1994, pp. 34-35).
NOTE: this is a
modification of the APA style. Strict APA style requires that you use all
the names the first time you cite, then the "et al." in subsequent
citations. I don’t care which way you want to do this.
Citing a source
with no author (editorials, articles with no bylines, certain non-print
media)
Americans watch a great
deal of television, estimated at seven and one-half hours per household per
day (TV watchers rise, 1994).
If this were
from a small unattributed "box" note in Advertising Age, and it had
no authors, it would be listed in references under the title of the box.
Citing an entire
article in a journal
That Americans watch a
great deal of television is well documented (Grimbsy, 1994).
No page number
where you are citing the results/ideas of the entire article.
Citing a
secondary source
DeWitt’s research shows
that people watch a great deal of television in this culture (Grimbsy, 1993,
p. 45).
Here you are
citing DeWitt, but you haven’t read her (the primary source). Cite the
author of the source you used.
Quoting a
secondary source.
DeWitt said "…people
watch more TV than ever before." (Quoted in Grimbsy, 1993, p. 45).
This is not
usually done, but you can. Notice the ellipsis (…) at the beginning of the
statement to indicate that the quote is not the beginning of a sentence.
there is a period at the end because that’s part of the original quote.
Otherwise, there would be another ellipsis.
Citing an
article in a magazine
Americans watch a great
deal of television, estimated at seven and one-half hours per household per
day (Grimbsy, 1994, p. 34).
This is the
author of the article, not the editors of the magazine. In the references,
this would be listed under Grimbsy.
When the
author’s name is in the text
Harold Grimsby claims that
Americans watch a great deal of television. His research claims an estimated
seven and one-half hours per household per day (1994, p. 34).
Here you don’t
need the name, since you mentioned it in the sentence.
When there are
many studies showing the same thing
Current research indicates
that people watch a great deal of television (Grimbsy, 1994, p.24; Swartz,
1989, p. 12; Joyner, 1993, p. 30).
This is usually
found at the beginning of your context when you are making a point about a
very general idea on your topic. The semicolon separates sources.
Emendation:
adding a word to a direct quote for clarity
"People watch [TV] more
than four hours a day each." (Grimsby, 1986, p. 341).
The original
quote may have been "People watch it more…" so you put the [TV] in square
brackets to indicate that you’re correcting the quote for clarity’s sake.
When the quote
contains an error.
"People are watching
televisions (sic) too much." (Grimsby, p. 23)
The use of
"televisions" may be an error, but if it’s what the author said, leave it
and use (sic) to indicate that it was in the original.
When you want to
stress something in a quote
People watch television
more than four hours a day
(Grimsby, 1989, p. 22, emphasis added).
If you are doing
the underlining (or italics) then day so in the cite.
When the author
wanted to stress something in a quote
People watch television
more than four hours a day
(Grimsby, 1989, p. 22, emphasis in original).
The original
quote contained the underlining or italics; you are not adding the emphasis.
When you edit a
quote
"…people watch TV …
more than four hours a day…"
Three dots (no
space between) indicate you are leaving out something for the sake of
clarity or brevity.
Website"Evidence
of causality in television violence is problematic." (Smith, 2003, �
3).
If available,
use the paragraph symbol, � to indicate the position in a website. You
can also use "para" if you have trouble inserting the symbol.
   

References

The general construction of APA style references is:

Last Name, First Initial. (Year). Title in italics
but only the first word is capitalized
. Place:

           
Publisher’s Name.

using a "hanging indent." See many examples in most of the textbooks you have
from your major or almost any communication journal.

FILM EXAMPLE:

Scorsese, M. (Producer), and Lonergan, K.
(Writer/Director). (2003).  You can
count on me
. 

       
[Motion Picture].  United States:  Paramount
Pictures.

 

Note on websites

Generally, do not use a website with no author, especially Wikopedia. 
Although much of the information in Wikopedia is good, a great deal of it is
plagiarized from other sources.  In any case, if there is no author, it is
generally not a legitimate source.  (A couple of exceptions are made for government
documents, reports, and some types of data like TV ratings, film box office
reports, etc.).

Otherwise, the reference entry for an online source follows the same protocol
as any other, except that you indicate the URL.  http://www.apastyle.org/elecsource.html
has examples, including:

Glueckauf, R. L., Whitton, J., Baxter,
J., Kain, J., Vogelgesang, S.,Hudson, M., et al. (1998, July). Videocounseling
for families of rural teens with epilepsy — Project update. Telehealth
News,2
(2). Retrieved from http://www.telehealth.net/subscribe/newslettr4a.html1